We @ TechVerito hiring a passionate QA Engineer experience from 2-5 years who is really keen on coding discipline and practices. What we look for in you? 2-5 years of proven experience in Automation testing and exploratory testing. Should able to understand software internals, debug problems using log files, and write automated tests and/or user-level test automation tools What makes you a great fit: 2-5 years of hands-on experience developing Test Automation using Selenium Webdriver, Cucumber. Technical knowledge building REST-based APIs and API Test Automation using REST Assured is desirable. Knowledge of Java and Selenium Test Automation. Strong knowledge of Cypress for testing front end modern web applications. Strong knowledge of Protractor and Cucumber JS for testing front end modern web applications (Optional). Hands-on experience of Swagger/RAML is a plus. Hands-on experience of Eclipse IDE, GIT, Maven, Ant, and Jenkins. Familiarity with Agile software development methodology. Has a Bachelor's degree or better in Computer Science or related Engineering discipline. What You'll do: Thorough understanding of SDLC, specifically automated QA processes in agile development environments. Documenting tests into tools like TestRAILS. Experience in writing, executing and monitoring automated test suites using a variety of technologies including, but not limited to, Cucumber, Concordion, Selenium, Fit/FitNesse, Appium, Postman, SoapUI Proficient with bug tracking and test management toolsets to support development processes Strong working knowledge of testing fundamentals such as TDD & BDD. Proficient working with relational databases such as MySQL & PostgreSQL You will also engage with the Test lead to develop test automation frameworks and automation scripts for different modules You will be writing automation tests and integrating tests with the build. You must build rapport with the customer by delivering quality work. Estimate efforts to implement tools, solutions and test automation, and communicate progress clearly to management, as appropriate.
Area We are on a mission to enable businesses to build agile and accountable technology teams that can deliver results in a secure and scalable way. You will be working in one such technology team for a client based out of US. Role We are looking for a Quality Assurance (QA) engineer to develop and execute exploratory and automated tests to ensure product quality. QA engineer responsibilities include designing and implementing tests, debugging and defining corrective actions. You will also review system requirements and track quality assurance metrics (e.g. defect densities and open defect counts.) The QA technician role plays an important part in our company’s product development process. Our ideal candidate will be responsible for conducting tests before product launches to ensure software runs smoothly and meets client needs, while being cost-effective. If you hold an engineering background and enjoy providing end-to-end solutions to software quality problems, we’d like to meet you. Ultimately, you should monitor all stages of software development to identify and resolve system malfunctions to meet quality standards. Responsibilities Review requirements, specifications and technical design documents to provide timely and meaningful feedback Create detailed, comprehensive and well-structured test plans and test cases Estimate, prioritize, plan and coordinate testing activities Design, develop and execute automation scripts using open source tools Identify, record, document thoroughly and track bugs Perform thorough regression testing when bugs are resolved Develop and apply testing processes for new and existing products to meet client needs Liaise with internal teams (e.g. developers and product managers) to identify system requirements Monitor debugging process results Investigate the causes of non-conforming software and train users to implement solutions Track quality assurance metrics, like defect densities and open defect counts Stay up-to-date with new testing tools and test strategies Qualifications BSc/BE/BTech in Computer Science, Engineering or a related field Proven work experience in software development Proven work experience in software quality assurance Strong knowledge of software QA methodologies, tools and processes Experience in writing clear, concise and comprehensive test plans and test cases Hands-on experience with both white box and black box testing Hands-on experience with automated testing tools Solid knowledge of SQL and scripting Experience working in an Agile/Scrum development process Experience with performance and/or security testing is a plus
What Are We Looking For? Contentstack is looking for a QA Engineer. Job type – Full time employment Job location – Mumbai/Pune/ India Work schedule – Monday to Friday, 10am to 7pm Minimum qualification – Graduate. Years of experience – 2 to 6 years Roles and responsibilities: Perform frontend and backend testing (Platform - Web) Perform regression testing (Platform - Web) Build internal scripts to automate QA processes Generate testing reports and status reports Create and maintain the test case repository Provide feedback to the developers Complete tasks in a timely manner Update internal product documentation Mandatory Skills Experience in using Github and Git Experience in any bug reporting tool such as JIRA Knowledge of JSON and REST Strong knowledge of the system development life cycle Experience in Agile/Scrum Excellent written and verbal communications skills (English) Self-Directed - Ability to detect and solve problems Strong knowledge of the Selenium Webdriver and Java Good understanding of API automation tools like JMeter Experience in Load Testing Knowledge on Continuous Integration Knowledge on Jenkins
This engineer will support the Development and Testing teams and focusing on fault finding, verifying bug fixes, regression testing and quality assurance tasks.Is this you? I am passionate about keeping quality assurance in all deliverables to support our reputation in the market. Ihave vision and talent to create test strategies and plans to cover all possible scenarios. I love logic and solving puzzles. I strive working with a diverse, highly skilled team based in the UK and India. I am fluent in English, both written and spoken. Responsibilities Ensure software functions remain at the highest standards. Have the ability to prioritize delivery scenarios and deadlines. Developing and executing test plans/cases by performing manual or automated testing. Document with accurately all testing activities. Build testing templates and platform extensionsfor facilitate reusability and productivity. Qualifications Experience with manual testing. Experience with SQL language and Databases. Knowledge of the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) and designing Test Scripts. Knowledge of the Java language, data model and ETL architecture. Knowledge of SOAP and REST API endpoints and Postman or similar tools. Knowledge of performance tools such as JMeter. Knowledge of documenting testing results. Knowledge of automation testing frameworks. Competencies Excellent written and verbal communication skills in English and Hindi. Excellent interpersonal skills to collaborate with various stakeholders. Identifying the right questions and understand the big picture. Constant learningwhich enjoys new challenges. Self-Starter with excellent time management skills. Benefits• Excellent work life balance, including flexible working hours within core working hours.• Actively encouraged in decision making at all levels.• Assigned mentor for self-development.• 18 days annual leave.• Medical Insurance and Provident Fund.While applying• Please answer the screening questions.• Please prepare your CV using the Europass format:https://europa.eu/europass/eportfolio/screen/cv-editor?lang=en
Job description We are seeking an experienced quality assurance engineer to develop and execute exploratory and automated tests to ensure product quality. As a quality assurance engineer, you will be responsible for creating and implementing a strategy for quality coordination and testing as well as suggesting solutions to identified quality problems. Your role includes designing and implementing tests, debugging, and defining corrective actions. The role plays an important part in our company’s product development process. Our ideal candidate will be responsible for conducting tests before product launches to ensure software runs smoothly and meets as per the requirements. If you hold an engineering background and enjoy providing end-to-end solutions to software quality problems, we’d like to meet you.mail resume to qa @ theintegrityglobal.com Responsibilities Reviewing requirements, specifications, and technical design documents to provide timely and meaningful feedback. Thorough knowledge of performing end top end functional testing as an individual contributor. Knowledge of creating detailed, comprehensive, and well-structured test plans, test scenarios, and test cases. Strong knowledge of software QA methodologies, tools, and processes. Knowledge of preparing reports to communicate the outcomes of quality activities. Sound knowledge of automation concepts. Expert-level knowledge of automation using selenium tools. Hands-on experience of design, develop, and execute automation scripts. Knowledge of automation using Selenium or other open-source tools. Good knowledge of API automation Good knowledge of database concepts and SQL queries. Experience with performance and/or security testing is a plus. Knowledge of any CI/CD tools is a plus. Skills Passion and commitment to work in a startup environment. Team player, good time-management skills, and great interpersonal and communication skills. Highly motivated, self-starter that can operate under minimal supervision. Familiarity with agile software development methodologies is also a plus. Qualification Bachelor’s degree in engineering from a reputed institution. Master’s degree preferred. 5+ years of work experience as a quality assurance engineer Knowledge of the healthcare and life science domain would be plus
QA Engineer Lead for Web and Mobile based appsWork: We are building products for Silicon Valley-based startup in the Recommendation domain. You will be responsible for ensuring the quality of software products we build for our customers. You will author test documentation including test plans, test case & scenarios and, execute test plans. You will also analyze and troubleshoots issues, and participate in the development and product discussions. Responsibilities:-You will be responsible for developing test strategies, plans, and test cases-Collaborate across teams to develop solution-based test plans and ensure that feedback from different stakeholders is incorporated.-Work towards sustaining current QA processes and implementing new ones-Automate tests using homegrown and open-source test frameworks-Define system test plans to validate all existing feature functionalities configured on system testbeds and automate all test cases-Verify endurance and scale testing to validate robust feature functionality under stress - Help guide junior QA engineers under you.Experience:3 – 5 years of test engineering experienceQualifications:-Experience in different types of testing that includes Functional testing, Integration testing, Regression testing, System testing, Installation & upgrade testing, and sanity/smoke testing -Experience in debugging and troubleshooting issues at different levels of the software stack - Comfortable with Agile methodologies and working in small teams -Scripting experience in Python or Shell scripts is a plus -Knowledge of test frameworks like Selenium, PyUnit/JUnit is a plus -Experience with performance testing using JMeter, Scale and Reliability testingMust-Have Skills:– Minimum 3 years of experience for testing web and mobile-based applications and proficiency with REST API testing – Experience working with startups and enterprises and the ability to communicate well
Who we are? Searce is a niche’ Cloud Consulting business with futuristic tech DNA. We do new-age tech to realise the “Next” in the “Now” for our Clients. We specialise in Cloud Data Engineering, AI/Machine Learning and Advanced Cloud infra tech such as Anthos and Kubernetes. We are one of the top & the fastest growing partners for Google Cloud and AWS globally with over 2,500 clients successfully moved to cloud. What we believe? Best practices are overrated Implementing best practices can only make one n . Honesty and Transparency We believe in naked truth. We do what we tell and tell what we do. Client Partnership Client - Vendor relationship: No. We partner with clients instead. And our sales team comprises 100% of our clients. How we work? It’s all about being Happier first. And rest follows. Searce work culture is defined by HAPPIER. Humble: Happy people don’t carry ego around. We listen to understand; not to respond. Adaptable: We are comfortable with uncertainty. And we accept changes well. As that’s what life's about. Positive: We are super positive about work & life in general. We love to forget and forgive. We don’t hold grudges. We don’t have time or adequate space for it. Passionate: We are as passionate about the great street-food vendor across the street as about Tesla’s new model and so on. Passion is what drives us to work and makes us deliver the quality we deliver. Innovative: Innovate or Die. We love to challenge the status quo. Experimental: We encourage curiosity & making mistakes. Responsible: Driven. Self motivated. Self governing teams. We own it. Are you the one? Quick self-discovery test: Love for cloud: When was the last time your dinner entailed an act on “How would ‘Jerry Seinfeld’ pitch Cloud platform & products to this prospect” and your friend did the ‘Sheldon’ version of the same thing. Passion for sales: When was the last time you went at a remote gas station while on vacation, and ended up helping the gas station owner saasify his 7 gas stations across other geographies. Compassion for customers: You listen more than you speak. When you do speak, people feel the need to listen. Humor for life: When was the last time you told a concerned CEO, ‘If Elon Musk can attempt to take humanity to Mars, why can’t we take your business to run on cloud?’ We welcome *really unconventional* creative thinkers who can work in an agile, flexible environment. We are a flat organization with unlimited growth opportunities, and small team sizes – wherein flexibility is a must, mistakes are encouraged, creativity is rewarded, and excitement is required. Introduction: This person is responsible for creating an end-to-end test plan; executing the plan and managing all activities in the plan to ensure that all the objectives are met and that the solution works as expected. The solution should be tested in terms of functionality, performance, reliability, stability and compatibility with other legacies- and/or external systems. You would be expected to make sure that testing is well defined, planned and executed. The analyst does this by ensuring that every phase and feature of the software solution is tested and that any potential issue is identified and fixed timely. Your bucket of Undertaking Plan, develop and execute tests/QA use cases against all the product releases using a variety of manual and automated test tools to ensure requirements have been met Working closely with a team of test engineers to define Test Strategy, Test Plan, Test Methodologies Work with the development team to ensure all requirements have been tested, defects have been identified and documented, impacts have been assessed, and resolutions provided Create and maintain test documentation such as test plans and test reports Interact with team members and other groups to troubleshoot and resolve quality defects and issues identified during the testing process and post-release of the product Communicate product and process information to other members of the QA team, other departments as necessary Create Automation suites for existing test cases to reduce manual effort Ability to find errors and communicate them timely Fit Assessment A Searce team member is a highly motivated individual with a phenomenal amount of passion and energy for whatever he/she engages in; Who respects honesty, integrity, initiative and creative approach to problem solving; An inspiration to colleagues, he/she is a tenacious, and highly driven professional with a proven record of success and with a strong empathy for people - clients, partners, colleagues or vendors. Accomplishment Set Experience in different types of testing that includes Functional testing, Integration testing, Regression testing, System testing, Installation & upgrade testing, and sanity/smoke testing Automation Framework implementation and understanding such Keyword, hybrid etc Experience with Agile software development methodologies Ability to "think outside the box" when creating and executing test plans Strong written and verbal communications demonstrated through the creation of test plans, defect documentation, and summary presentations Ability to leverage technology to advance the quality of products and efficiency of development and quality related processes Ability to follow a systematic and progressive process when troubleshooting and solving problems Should be able to work from scratch level, creating framework Sound Knowledge in core & Advance Java Sound Knowledge of web Automation Testing Education and Experience B. E. / B. Tech in Computer Science 3-5 years of relevant experience Strong in academics and good aptitude Excellent communication skills with a flair to learn quickly. The position will be based at Pune.
System and Network Performance Engineer As a System and Network Performance Engineer, you will help the product teams attain maturity in the application performance, setting up the core performance engineering practices across OS and network-level tuning with the goal to create high performant products. You will work within a team, engaging with Product team members to help build and reinforce the core performance engineering mindset and to embed its practices in the day to day work. Examples include: creating the design for setting up the new system and network KPIs, tuning operating system to optimize it for the application hosting, best APM and tracing practices to use while setting up an application into an ecosystem, performance-optimized infrastructure choices, performance as day zero practice. Once here you will? Some of the things that you can look forward to doing once you are here are: Be a part of Agile rituals like Feature elaboration/Estimation, daily stand-ups, release planning, Iteration Planning Meeting, Retrospective, Showcase, etc Creating technical design specs for a system which sets up enhanced visibility and tracing of network and system performance Conduct system performance testing to ensure system reliability, capacity and scalability Analyze test results and coordinate with development teams for bug fixes. Analyze the root cause of performance issues and provide corrective actions. Suggest new tools and techniques to improve testing efficiency. Help teams to right-size their servers and containers Assist in project planning, scheduling, budgeting, and tracking activities. Provide support in project design, development and deployment activities. Review and recommend improvements tonexisting test procedures Gate keep application performance by ensuring that best practices are followed. Coach, train and mentor to improve the maturity and value of the performance engineering across multiple teams Relevant experience? The Performance Engineer would need to have at least 3+ years of experience for Performance Engineer and 5+ years of experience for Sr. Performance Engineer. This Candidate will be a contributing member as part of the Performance Engineering Team. He/ she will coordinate the Performance Engineering activities for multiple Platform based projects/initiatives. Minimum qualifications: Good understating of AWS network concepts and their performance implications Must be aware AWS of offerings which helps in improving the performance of an applications Understanding of operating system's (preferably Linux) performance tuning concepts Good experience in memory and CPU thread analysis, GC overview, experience with few incidences Good experience in debugging infrastructure performance pain points and should also be able to suggest improvements Must have a good understanding of Hyper virtualization Has a very good understanding of Infra, hands-on experience in setting up servers, Containers, pipelines, CI Extensive knowledge and experience of Performance testing and monitoring tools ( at least 2) JMeter, VSTS, LoadRunner, Dynatrace, AppDynamics, SiteScope, Grafana, Kibana Testing Coordination experience – Full understanding of end to end performance test process and experience on how and when to engage different teams Excellent Soft Skills (Communication – via email, phone, live-meeting, etc.) Good programming experience with any programming languages, preferably C# Experience with CI (Continuous Integration) with Performance Testing Preferred qualifications: Experience working with .Net core applications Experience in creating NFR's Experience with performance tuning of NoSQL Databases Experience collaborating closely with product, engineering, and UX teams
Over 6 - 12 years of experience in software testing and test automation Minimum 2 years of experience working in agile projects In depth knowledge of test automation using Selenium Good knowledge in web service testing using Rest Assured Experience in development of test automation framework as Data driven/Keyword driven/Hybrid/POM. Should have developed 1 or more automation frameworks from scratch. Highly motivated, with a proven ability to work on own initiative within a challenging work environment. Strong team player with good organization, planning and leadership skills Excellent interpersonal skills, including oral/written communication & influencing skills Exceptional presentation, business writing and professional standards Good analytical, diagnostic and creative problem solving skills. Atleast one project experience in E-Commerce Domain. Must Have - Automation with Java, test framework, QA process & tools like Selenium, Jenkins, Maven, API testing, RESTAssured. Good to have Spring Boot. Good to have WebTestClient.
We are looking for people who are have good analytical thinking, a well-defined approach, and an eye for detail.As an QA in MindTickle you will be required to:• The role will include working on web and mobile application.• Be keen on finding loopholes, bugs in systems and should be able to think out of the box.• Have good communication skills and be a good team player as well as an individual contributor.• Own responsibility and handle ownership of assignments.• Role will gradually grow from Manual to a full stack QA (Manual + Automation).• Good programming skills.
We are growing quickly at Tech9 and are looking for a Senior QA Engineer with experience in mobile and automation. This is a great opportunity to work with a company that has a primary focus of making our customers happy by delivering value, without all the burdensome policies and rules that have become typical for outsourced software development companies. If you are looking for a change this is what we can promise you:You will have challenging problems to solve You will have flexibility and autonomy to solve problems and deliver solutionsWe will provide a highly collaborative environment with skilled and super friendly teammatesWe will fully support you in developing software the right way We won't burden you with useless policies and proceduresWe will provide you the tools you need to do your job rightYou will be challenged to continually learn new skills and become an expert in cloud computing (over 90% of our employees are AWS Certified)If that sounds attractive please apply! We'd love to talk to you. Here are some more details about the position: You will be hands-on member of the time writing test cases, creating test plans, writing automation, and executing test cases. You will work with a project manager, software development engineers, user experience and interface designers, and customer stakeholders to deliver high quality, scalable and maintainable software solutions.ResponsibilitiesWork with software engineers to deliver UI-level tests as they are developing new functionality.Perform automated and manual testing as required for the project.Contribute in all phases of the development lifecycle.Write and implement test cases within the test framework.Participate in all Agile/Scrum ceremonies, including discussing and writing stories and tests to prepare for upcoming sprints.Help prepare and produce releases of software components.Support continuous improvement by investigating alternatives and technologies within the test area.Drive the team towards continuous deployment.Required Qualifications5 years experience manually testing software.Hands-on experience with setting up and using Selenium and other UI testing frameworks.Knowledge of Relational Databases, including SQL to look at data.Experience with development using Agile/ScrumOpenness to learning other technologies including front-end and back-end frameworks.Able to assess a feature or function definition and determine if it can and should be automated.Desired QualificationsCloud Platforms (Azure, AWS or Heroku)GitSourceTree and BitbucketScrumProject management software - JiraUsing Postman to test Rest APIs
Job Description for SDET (Test Automation - Selenium-Java) As a SDET you will work closely with development teams, project managers, business analysts and manual testers across different projects. Employment Type – Full Time - Permanent About us Founded in 2015 in Pune, vTEST (www.vtestcorp.com) is an independent software testing services firm based out of Pune, India and registered in Delaware, US. vTEST works with clients across the globe and employs Manual and Automation Testers to implement best testing practices for all types of testing. Our testers work from vTEST offices in Pune OR from our client offices across India and international locations. Once here you will? Some of the things that you can look forward to doing once you are here are: 1. Be part of Agile rituals like Feature elaboration/Estimation, daily stand-ups, release planning, Iteration Planning Meeting, Retrospective, Showcase, etc 2. Conduct detailed automation tests for each application being released and produce comprehensive reports. 3. Research new tools, methods and keep yourself up to date with the latest trends in test automation arena. 4. Own the test automation tasks for multiple projects simultaneously. 5. Recommend and implement test strategies that ensure best delivery to client. 6. Highlight risks for testing delivery to project manager, business stake holders. What does vTEST offer you? vTEST is a place unlike any other. It’s a place where you can solve diverse, complex challenges for our clients, alongside thoughtful, intelligent individuals who lead with curiosity, empathy, and optimism. We work hard, but we also intentionally craft moments that allow our community to pause, create, and connect. We encourage our community to bring their whole selves to work, respect the need for work-life balance, and allow for autonomy in the design process and your career. Perks include While some organisations offer you perks and benefits, we offer you the ‘vTEST Experience.’ An experience that gives you the opportunity to learn, innovate and have loads of fun. As we aspire to be an organisation where every meet-up that happens in Pune happens at vTEST. ng partner We organise series of technology events, hackathons, workshops and tech meet-ups to give our wiz kids the opportunity to interact with industry leaders and to also spread and rely on the expertise we possess. We do everything we can to make life here as easy as possible and do our best to take people's personal situations into account. Some of our key perks reflect our culture at vTEST: Technology: A company that promotes technology evangelism. Our constant endeavor is to continue to challenge our technology landscape and to pioneer the use and implement some of the coolest available technologies in the world. Learning & development: At vTEST, we believe in continuous learning and upgrading skills to have our testomaniacs at par with latest industry standards. All testomaniacs are encouraged to identify trainings, courses, sessions and conferences that they would like to attend. We sponsor INR 5000 per annum for each testomaniac to attend trainings, seminar, and conferences on prior approval from Team Lead and HR. Industry Connects: We provide a lot of opportunities for our employees to interact, learn and collaborate with thought leaders and evangelists in the industry through many connects, meet-ups and workshops that we conduct in our organisation. We also encourage our folks to publish papers, present at various conferences and even write books and are open to provide all kinds of support required in such endeavors. Thank God It’s Friday (TGIF): Each testomaniac is required to speak on tools, technology, domain on alternate Fridays as a part of our TGIF Series. We love to share what we know and TGIF is the best platform where we have all our testomaniacs connected and participate for the next generation of testing. Choose your own work days and work hours: We work for 9 hours per day typically from 10am to 7.00pm IST Monday to Friday. However, you are free to decide your own working hours and sometime working days too like Tuesday to Saturday, Sunday to Thursday. For testomaniacs working out from client office, they are required to follow the workdays, timings and holiday calendar as per client location. Sabbaticals: We promote leaves for a purpose. Employees can take an unpaid sabbatical for a maximum of 3 months, to set up their own business or for higher education. Relevant experience - Minimum qualifications: Total IT Experience: 3 to 7 years Education: MCA or BCA or any Computer Degree. Good experience in manual testing of at least 1 of web applications, clientserver applications, mobile apps At least 2 year experience with test automation using any tool like Selenium WebDriver with Java Good understanding of operating system concepts, databases, system architecture and performance testing concepts Good understanding of SDLC, STLC and different project methodologies Good understanding of test plan, test cases writing/reviewing, effort estimations & test strategy Strong analytical skills with excellent troubleshooting approach Good verbal and written communication in English Excellent documentation skills and able to explain application workflow, system design, defects and functionality in clear and concise manner Able to work independently and multi-tasking Preferred qualifications: Managerial or Lead experience is not desired as this is an individual contributor role. Experience with any scripting language is a plus. Any testing certification such as ISTQB, CMMi standards, Agile and Scrum knowledge.
Job Brief:Strong experience as a Developer, QA Engineer, Software Developer in Test or similar QA role.Minimum 1-2 years strong experience with iOS and/or Android testing frameworks (XCTest, KIF, JUnit, Espresso).RequiremnetsExperience with web testing frameworks (Selenium, HPQT).Experience with API testing tools (Restlet, Postman).Experience with Git, continuous integration and deployment tools. What’s attractive about us?We offer a suite of memberships and subscriptions to spice up your lifestyle. We believe in practicing an ultimate work life balance and satisfaction. Working hard doesn’t mean clocking in extra hours, it means having a zeal to contribute the best of your talents. Our people culture helps us inculcate measures and benefits which help you feel confident and happy each and every day. Whether you’d like to skill up, go off the grid, attend your favourite events or be an epitome of fitness. We have you covered round and about. Health Memberships Sports Subscriptions Entertainment Subscriptions Key Conferences and Event Passes Learning Stipend Team Lunches and Parties Travel Reimbursements ESOPs Thast what we think would bloom up your personal life, as a gesture for helping us with your talents.Join us to be a part of our Exciting journey to Build one Digital Identity Platform!!!
Required Skills- - Strong multi-version MacOS development skills with XCode, GCC and the rest of the tool chain. - Experience with Objective C, OS Internals, native development with REST APIs must. - Experience with multi threaded applications and performance optimization preferred. - Experience with Memory Management, Security and other system APIs preferred.